Ordained in 1885, he doctorated in theology in 1888 and was appointed in 1891 Director of the Royal Catholic Teacher Training College in Győr where he had worked for two years as a professor. In 1900 he resigned from his teaching position to dedicate, as the parish priest of the village of Pér, more time to scholarly research, focusing on the Turkish written documents related to Hungary. In 1902 he started on the request of the Historical Commission of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences the translation of the Hungarian voyage of the 17th-century Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi.
Since 1907, under an official commission, he made research in several archives of Istanbul, initially to explore the documents of the Rákóczi emigration. The following year he was given access by special permission of the Sultan, as the first Western researcher, to the archive of the Topkapı Saray where he selected the documents related to Hungary. Here came to his hands the autograph manuscript of İbrâhîm Müteferrika known as Risâle-i Islâmîye which turned his interest to Müteferrika and served as a starting point to his scholarly essays on him, the first of which was published in the 1911 issue of Tarih-i Osmanî Encümeni Mecmuası, the review of the Turkish Historical Society, of which Karácson was also a member.
The results of his exploratory work were published, besides a number of articles, in the source collection Török-magyar oklevéltár 1533-1789 (Turco-Hungarian Archive, 1533-1789) (1914) and vol. 3 of the Török Történetírók (Turkish Historiographers) (1916). He discovered the tombstone of Imre Thököly in the Armenian cemetery of Izmit. Imre Karácson died in 1911 in Istanbul. His ashes rest in the public cemetery of Győr.